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                                                  IN  CALIFORNIA.

                                             COMPILED  BY  W. W.  JENKINS.

                         From  the  auriferous  deposits  of  the  State  of  California,  $1,100,-
                       000,000  gold  have  been  extracted  during the  last  sixty  years.
                         The  magnitude  of the  mining operations  required  to  produce  this
                       enormous  yield  is  but  little  known  to  the  general  public.  The  con-
                       tinuous  flow  of  gold  bullion  has,  however,  made  the  State  famous
                       and  attracted  the  attention  of  political  economists  everywhere.
                         First Mention  of California:  The first  mention of the name "Cal-
                       ifornia"  occurs  in  connection  with  the  supposed  great  island  where
                       gold  and  precious  stones  were  found  in  abundance,  described  in  a
                       romance  called  "Las  Sergus  de  Esplandian,"  published  in  Spain A.
                       D.  1510.  The  followers  of  Cortez  had  a  chimerical idea  of  some
                       hidden El Dorado,  and,  strange to say,  they applied  the  name  "Cali-
                       fornia"  to  that  unknown  country  north  of  Mexico  with  which  they
                       associated  the  notion  of  a  region  of  fabulous  wealth.
                         Discovery  of Lower California:        The  first  expedition  sent  out  by
                       Cortez  in  1534  discovered  what  is  now  called  Lower  California.
                       According to  Father Venegas, this  expedition  numbering some seven
                       hundred  souls,  was fitted  out at the  Port of Tehuantepec in  the year
                       1537, and sailed north to the head of the Gulf of California, but never
                       reached  the  line  which  marks  the  southern boundary of the  State of
                         Contemporaneously  with  the  departure  of  this  party,  four  persons
                       named  "Alvarez  Nunez,"  "Cabeza  de  Vaca,"  "Castillo,"  and  "Dor-
                       mente,"  with  a  negro  named  ''Estevancio,"  arrived  at  Culdiacan,  on
                       the  Gulf of  California,  from  the  Peninsula  of  Florida.  These  were
                       the  sole  survivors  of  the  three  hundred  Spaniards  who,  in  1527,
                       landed  with  Pamfilo  Narvaez  on  the  coast  of  Florida  with  the  in-
                       tention  of  conquering that  country.     Nunez  subsequently  conducted
                       the expedition  which discovered the Rio de La Plata and effected  the
                       first  conquest  of  Paraguay.
                         Early  Explorations:  In  I 542,  Mendoza,  Viceroy  of  Mexico,  sent
                       Rodriguez  Cabrillo,  a  Portuguese,  to  survey  the  west  coast  of  Cali-
                       fornia.  He  explored  the  coast,  naming  numerous  headlands,  the
                       most northerly of  which, in latitude 40 degrees north, he  called  Cape
                       :Mendocino.  Thence  he  proceeded  further  north  to  latitude  44  de-
                       grees.  which  he  reached  March  10th,  I 543.
                         In  I 578,  Sir Francis Drake entered the  Pacific and sailed  north  as
                       high as  latitude  48  degrees.  According  to  Hakluyt's  account  of the
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